Saturday, August 24, 2019

Proto-oncogene in prevention of cancer is my focus biochemistry Research Proposal

Proto-oncogene in prevention of cancer is my focus biochemistry - Research Proposal Example A mutation at the proto-oncogenes results in the production of oncogenes that can cause the hereditary cancer syndrome. The mutation causes the change in the oncogene protein expression level and a change in the structure of the protein. If more than one oncogene is activated in the cell, then the abnormal cancerous cell production occurs. Proto-oncogenes are activated by three mechanisms. They are point mutations, chromosomal translocations, insert mutations, protein-protein interactions and gene amplification. Ras protein is an important product of proto-onco gene. Ras is one of the most important switches in the cell signaling pathway.1 There are three Ras proteins in the mammals. If any mutation occurs in the ras protein then it will result in the cell proliferation stimulation and finally apoptosis will be inhibited. Thus tumor cells will be produced. The ras mutation is one of the reasons for 30% of all the human cancer. H-ras, K-ras and N-ras mutations are found in almost all types of cancers. 1 Hence research in this field is much essential because of its importance in the carcinogenesis. Anti cancer therapy for the Ras protein is preferred in order to reduce and cure the cancer. Can anticancer therapy cure cancer? Scientific Background: McGlynn et al. (2009) looked up at the Ras/Raf-1/mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway and looked its role in the development and proliferation of cancer.2 They used chemotherapy for the treatment of cancer. Tamoxifen was used for the treatment. They looked up to know whether MAPK pathway has any major role in the carcinogenesis or not? Tamoxifen is an estrogen antagonist and the study was performed to check whether they can act as a target for the estrogen cancer therapy or not? For these two questions Mcglynn et al have found that Ras pathway responds very less for tamoxifen and good for chemotherapy. pRaf(ser338) is found to be the best marker with great effect for the targeted estrogen therapy. A combinati on of chemotherapy along with tamoxifen is required for the therapy. Further new researches are going on to identify small and simple molecules for the treatment of cancer. The signaling pathway molecules are considered to play a very important role in the cancer therapy. Farnesyltransferase (FTI) is an important inhibitor of small molecules. This enzyme is very important for the prenylation of Ras. Tipifarnib is one of the FTI that are used for the treatment of cancer. Here the role of tipifarnib in the Ras signaling pathway was analysed and the growth arrest and cell death related to the ERK and MAPK pathways were looked upon.3 Tipifarnib treatment was found to inhibit and sensitize the ERK and MAPK pathways. They have concluded that geranyl geranylated N-Ras or K-Ras BÂ  are sensititve to tipifarnib and interact in a different manner in the downstream signal processing at the osteosarcoma cells. This helps to maintain the balance between the cell death and proliferation. 3 The m etasatasis ability of the cells is found to be enhanced by the ras activity. The poor understanding of the Ras protein is a big draw back in the treatment of cancer. Here Varghese et al (2002) have looked up to know whether macroscopic metastases are being affected by Ras or not. They have used Green fluorescent protein-transfected NIH 3T3 and T24 H-ras-transformed (PAP2) fibroblasts in the mouse and looked for the

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